Fusha to Shami 25: Form I verb tables

This ~bonus bonus bonus~ post is pretty self-explanatory, I think. All forms given here are Syrian – minor variations occur in other dialects.

This is not a comprehensive list of all of the possible conjugation patterns of Syrian. Every Arabic verb has a present vowelling (e.g. yéf3al) and a past vowelling (e.g. fé3el). Most verbs pair a present vowelling with a past vowelling according to predictable patterns – most fé3el verbs are yéf3al verbs in the present, for example, and most fa3al verbs are either yéf3el or yéf3ol verbs in the present. There are a not-insignificant number of verbs, however, which have unpredictable or unusual pairings of a present and a past vowelling. Only a dictionary or native speakers can provide this information. Nonetheless, any verb which has fa3al vowelling in the past will conjugate in the past like katab here. Likewise, any verb which has yéf3al vowelling in the present will conjugate like yét3ab here.

Although a lot of these patterns have obvious correspondences to fuSHa patterns and are probably related to them (fa3ila > fé3el), fuSHa verbs do not necessarily have the corresponding vowelling in colloquial. The colloquial form can only be learnt from a dictionary or from natives.

Fa3al fé3el; yéf3el yéf3ol yéf3al

These are the two ‘sound’ past vowellings and three ‘sound’ present vowellings. Probably the most common pattern is fa3alyéf3el or fa3al-yéf3ol, followed by fé3el-yéf3al. The only pattern in meaning you can generally observe  is that the majority of form I verbs of becoming are fé3el-yéf3al, as té3eb is (‘get tired’). However, far from all fé3el verbs are verbs of becoming, as you can see from the second example, mések.

كتب  katab
‘to write’
Active Participle Passive Participle
كاتب  kaateb مكتوب maktuub
MaSdar Noun of Instance
كتابة  kitaabe N/A
كتوب كتبي كتبو
ktoob ktébi ktébu
Present Past
Ana éktob béktob اكتب بكتب katab@t كتبت
Inte téktob btéktob تكتب بتكتب katab@t كتبت
Inti ték@tbi bték@tbi تكتبي بتكتبي katabti كتبتي
Huwwe yéktob byéktob يكتب بيكتب katab كتب
Hiyye téktob btéktob تكتب بتكتب katbet كتبت
Né7na néktob mnéktob نكتب منكتب katabna كتبنا
Intu ték@tbu bték@tbu تكتبو بتكتبو katabtu كتبتو
Hénnen yék@tbu byék@tbu يكتبو بيكتبو katabu كتبو



مسك mések
‘to hold, catch’
Active Participle Passive Participle
ماسك  maasek ممسوك  mamsuuk
MaSdar Noun of Instance
مسك  mas@k مسكة  maske
مسيك مسكي مسكو
mseek mséki mséku
Present Past
Ana émsek bémsek امسك بمسك msék@t مسكت
Inte témsek btémsek تمسك بتمسك msék@t مسكت
Inti tém@ski btém@ski تمسكي بتمسكي msékti مسكتي
Huwwe yémsek byémsek يمسك بيمسك mések مسك
Hiyye témsek btémsek تمسك بتمسك mésket مسكت
Né7na némsek mnémsek نمسك منمسك msékna مسكنا
Intu tém@sku btém@sku تمسكو بتمسكو mséktu مسكتو
Hénnen yém@sku byém@sku يمسكو بيمسكو mésku مسكو


تعب  té3eb
‘get tired’
Active Participle Passive Participle
تعبان  ta3baan
MaSdar Noun of Instance
تعب  ta3@b N/A
تعاب تعبي تعبو
t3aab t3abi t3abu
Present Past
Ana ét3ab bét3ab اتعب بتعب t3éb@t تعبت
Inte tét3ab btét3ab تتعب بتتعب t3éb@t تعبت
Inti tét3abi btét3abi تتعبي بتتعبي t3ébti تعبتي
Huwwe yét3ab byét3ab يتعب بيتعب t3éb@t تعب
Hiyye tét3ab btét3ab تتعب بتتعب té3bet تعبت
Né7na nét3ab mnét3ab نتعب منتعب t3ébna تعبنا
Intu tét3abu btét3abu تتعبو بتتعبو t3ébtu تعبتو
Hénnen yét3abu byét3abu يتعبو بيتعبو té3bu تعبو


a3al; yaa3ol

This pattern only exists with two ‘hamzated’ verbs, akal  ‘eat’ and akhad  ‘take’.

اخد akhad
‘to take’
Active Participle Passive Participle
آخد aakhed مأخود ma2khuud
MaSdar Noun of Instance
اخد akh@d اخدة akhde
خود خدي خدو khood khédi khédu
Present Past
Ana aakhod baakhod آخد باخد akhad@t اخدت
Inte taakhod btaakhod تاخد بتاخد akhad@t اخدت
Inti taakhdi btaakhdi تاخدي بتاخدي akhatti اخدتي
Huwwe yaakhod byaakhod ياخد بياخد akhad اخد
Hiyye taakhod btaakhod تاخد بتاخد akhdet اخدت
Né7na naakhod mnaakhod ناخد مناخد akhadna اخدنا
Intu taakhdu btaakhdu تاخدو بتاخدو akhattu اخدتو
Hénnen yaakhdu byaakhdu ياخدو بياخدو akhadu اخدو


wé3el wa3al; yuu3al yuu3el

These are the patterns used by weak-initial verbs (‘assimilating verbs’ I seem to remember they’re called in fuSHa teaching materials). They are variations on the sound forms and act generally predictably apart from the treatment of the first consonant in the present, so we’ll only include one example here, wéSel. Note that for some speakers, at least some of these verbs act like they do in fuSHa, dropping their initial consonant entirely – so you will hear for example téSel ‘you arrive’ as well as tuuSal.

وصل wéSel


Active Participle Passive Participle
واصل وصلان waaSel waSlaan N/A
MaSdar Noun of Instance
وصول wSuul N/A
وصال وصلي وصلو
wSaal wSali wSalu
Present Past
Ana uuSel buuSel اوصل بوصل wSél@t وصلت
Inte tuuSel btuuSel توصل بتوصل wSél@t وصلت
Inti tuuSli btuuSli توصلي بتوصلي wSélti وصلتي
Huwwe yuuSel byuuSel يوصل بيوصل wéSel وصل
Hiyye tuuSel btuuSel توصل بتوصل wéSlet وصلنا
Né7na nuuSel mnuuSel نوصل منوصل wSélna وصلنا
Intu tuuSel btuuSli توصلو بتوصلو wSéltu وصلتو
Hénnen yuuSlu byuuSlu يوصلو بيوصلو wéSlu وصلو


faal (fél@t); yfiil yfuul yfaal

These are the so-called hollow verbs with a semivowel (w, y) as their middle root letter. There is only one possible past vowelling in Syrian – down from one in fuSHa – because of the merger of i u to é in stressed syllables, but there are three possible present vowellings. The rarest, as in fuSHa, is yfaal. The other two are both quite common. Note the regularised passive participle.

جاب  jaab
‘to bring’
Active Participle Passive Participle
جايب  jaayeb مجيوب  majyuub
MaSdar Noun of Instance
جيب جيبي جيبو
jiib jiibi jiibu
Present Past
Ana jiib bjiib جيب بجيب jéb@t جبت
Inte tjiib bétjiib تجيب بتجيب jéb@t جبت
Inti tjiibi bétjiibi تجيبي بتجيبي jébti جبتي
Huwwe yjiib bijiib يجيب بجيب jaab جاب
Hiyye tjiib bétjiib تجيب بتجيب jaabet جابت
Né7na njiib ménjiib نجيب منجيب jébna جبنا
Intu tjiibu bétjiibu تجيبو بتجيبو jébtu جبتو
Hénnen yjiibu bijiibu يجيبو بجيبو jaabu جابو


داق  daa2

‘to taste’

Active Participle Passive Participle
دايق  daaye2 مديوق  madyuu2
MaSdar Noun of Instance
دوق  doo2 N/A
دوق دوقي دوقو
duu2 duu2i duu2u
Present Past
Ana duu2 bduu2 دوق بدوق dé2@t دقت
Inte tduu2 bétduu2 تدوق بتدوق dé2@t دقت
Inti tduu2i bétduu2i تدوقي بتدوقي dé2ti دقتي
Huwwe yduu2 biduu2 يدوق بدوق daa2 داق
Hiyye tduu2 bétduu2 تدوق بتدوق daa2et داقت
Né7na nduu2 ménduu2 ندوق مندوق dé2na دقنا
Intu tduu2u bétduu2u تدوقو بتدوقو dé2tu دقتو
Hénnen yduu2u biduu2u يدوقو بدوقو daa2u داقو



نام  naam

‘to sleep’

Active Participle Passive Participle
نايم  naayem N/A
MaSdar Noun of Instance
نوم  noom نومة  noome
نام نامي نامو
naam naami naamu
Present Past
Ana naam bnaam نام بنام ném@t نمت
Inte tnaam bétnaam تنام بتنام ném@t نمت
Inti tnaami bétnaami تنامي بتنامي némti نمتي
Huwwe ynaam binaam ينام بنام naam نام
Hiyye tnaam bétnaam تنام بتنام naamet نامت
Né7na nnaam bénnaam ننام مننام némna نمنا
Intu tnaamu bétnaamu تنامو بتنامو némtu نمتو
Hénnen ynaamu binaamu ينامو بنامو naamu نامو


fa3a fé3i; yéf3i yéf3a

These are the ‘defective verbs’ with a semivowel as their final consonant. They generally pattern, like their sound verb equivalents, as fa3a-yéf3i and fé3i-yéf3a, although there are exceptions. Many of the second class are verbs of becoming. The other possible vowelling in fuSHa, yaf3u, does not typically appear in 3aammiyye except in classicisms like yabdu ‘it seems’. A few verbs from fuSHa with this vowelling also exist in 3aammiyye as yéf3i verbs, e.g. سطى saTa (yéSTi) ‘rob’.

طفى Tafa

‘turn off’

Active Participle Passive Participle
طافي Taafi مطفي méTfi
MaSdar Noun of Instance
طفي Tafy N/A
اطفي اطفي اطفو

éTfi éTfi éTfu

Present Past
Ana éTfi béTfi اطفي بطفي Tafeet طفيت
Inte téTfi btéTfi تطفي بتطفي Tafeet طفيت
Inti téTfi btéTfi تطفي بتطفي Tafeeti طفيتي
Huwwe yéTfi يطفي بيطفي Tafa طفى
Hiyye téTfi btéTfi تطفي بتطفي Tafet طفت
Né7na néTfi mnéTfi نطفي منطفي Tafeena طفينا
Intu téTfu btéTfu تطفو بتطفو Tafeetu طفيتو
Hénnen yéTfu byéTfu يطفو بيطفو Tafu طفو



نسي nési


Active Participle Passive Participle
نسيان nésyaan منسي ménsi
MaSdar Noun of Instance
نسي nasy N/A
انسى انسي انسو

énsa énsi énsu

Present Past
Ana énsa bénsa انسى بنسى nsiit نسيت
Inte ténsa bténsa تنسى بتنسى nsiit نسيت
Inti ténsi bténsi تنسي بنتسي nsiiti نسيتي
Huwwe yénsa byénsa ينسى بينسى nési نسي
Hiyye ténsa bténsa تنسى بتنسى nésyet نسيت
Né7na nénsa mnénsa ننسى مننسى nsiina نسينا
Intu ténsu bténsu تنسو بتنسو nsiitu نسيتو
Hénnen yénsu byénsu ينسو بينسو nésyu نسيو


Fa33; yfé33

There is only one common pattern for doubled verbs, fa33-yfé33, although there may be some with yfa33. Doubled verbs are the class which differ most radically from fuSHa in their conjugation. Their active participles are regularised (daa2e2), and their past conjugation has been radically remodelled along the lines of weak verbs. Instead of splitting the consonants apart, in colloquial -ee- is inserted between the end of the stem and the suffix.


دق da22

‘hit, tap’

Active Participle Passive Participle
داقق daa2e2 مدقوق mad2uu2
MaSdar Noun of Instance
دق da22 دقة da22a
دق دقي دقو
dé22 dé22i dé22u
Present Past
Ana dé22 bdé22 دق بدق da22eet دقيت
Inte tdé22 bétdé22 تدق بتدق da22eet دقيت
Inti tdé22i bétde22i تدقي بتدقي da22eeti دقيتي
Huwwe ydé22 bidé22 يدق بدق da22 دق
Hiyye tdé22 bétdé22 تدق بتدق da22et دقت
Né7na ndé22 méndé22 ندق مندق da22eena دقينا
Intu tdé22u bétdé22u تدقو بتدقو da22eetu دقيتو
Hénnen ydé22 ydé22u يدقو بدقو da22u دقو

1 comment

  1. Very much thanks man! I’m learning so much from this series.
    It’s so great to finally find a blog teaching Arabic and still active!
    Because most of other ones are not active for years now.
    Keep the good work and may Allah reward you for teaching so much linguistic science! :)

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