Defective verbs (past)

Defective verbs are those verbs which have a weak consonant (y or w) as their last root letter. This weak consonant appears either as a (y), a long vowel (ee/ii) or a short vowel (i/a) with different suffixes and forms of the verb. Sometimes it disappears entirely.

Other than form I defective verbs on the pattern fé3i, all past hollow verbs have a final ـى in Syrian Arabic before suffixes are added. All derived defective verbs are thus conjugated almost identically to form I fa3a verbs, as do quadriliteral defective verbs and fa3la verbs like فرجى farja.

Form I defective verbs

Form I defective verbs have two possible internal vowellings in the past, fa3a and fé3i (fi3i).

حكى ‭‭7aka
‘speak, say, talk’

ana 7akeet

حكيت

انا

inte 7akeet

حكيت

انت

inti 7akeeti

حكيتي

انتي

huwwe 7aka

حكى

هو

hiyye 7aket

حكت

هي

ni7na 7akeena

حكينا

نحنه

intu 7akeetu

حكيتو

انتو

hinen 7aku

حكو

هنن

The first possible internal vowelling for form I verbs is fa3a. This vowelling is equivalent to fa3al for sound verbs.

For these verbs, suffixes that begin with vowels (-et, -u) causes the final vowel -a to disappear entirely. Suffixes that begin with consonants (-t -t -ti -na -tu) cause the final -a to turn into a long -ee- (7ak-ee-t).

As with any verb, adding a suffix causes lengthening of final vowels. However, unlike other verbs – which only have final vowels in suffixes – the ‘he’ form of past tense defective verbs also have final vowels which are part of the root, as in 7aka. These vowels are also lengthened by the addition of suffixes: حكاه ‭‭7akaa ‘he said it’.

These verbs never take contracting -et. Instead, when a fa3a verb with an -et suffix has an object suffix that begins with a vowel added to it, the -et becomes –ét- (or -it-) but does not take stress: حكته ‭‭7akéto ‘she spoke it’.

بكي béki
 ‘cry’

ana bkiit

بكيت

انا

inte bkiit

بكيت

انت

inti bkiiti

بكيتي

انتي

huwwe ki (biki)

بكي

هو

hiyye békyet (biki)

بكيت

هي

ni7na bkiina

بكينا

نحنه

intu bkiitu

بكيتو

انتو

hinen békyu (bikyu)

بكيو

هنن

The second possible internal vowelling for form I defective verbs is fé3i (fi3i). These are equivalent to sound verbs of the form fé3il and as such include a lot of verbs of being and becoming (رضي réDi ‘be satisfied’, دري déri ‘know, find out’).

With these verbs, suffixes beginning with a vowel (-et, -u) cause the final root consonant to appear as a y (rather than disappearing as in fa3a verbs). Suffixes beginning with a consonant (-t -t -ti -na -tu) cause it to turn into an ii and also, in a similar manner to sound verbs on the pattern fé3il, cause the first internal vowel to be dropped (bk-ii-t).

As with any verb, adding a suffix causes lengthening of final vowels. However, unlike other verbs – which only have final vowels in suffixes – the ‘he’ form of past tense defective verbs also have final vowels which are part of the root, as in diriThese vowels are also lengthened by the addition of suffixes: دريه dirii ‘he knew it’.

These verbs can take contracting -et, with the contraction of -i and -et resulting in –itbikito ‘she cried for him’.


Form II defective verbs

مشّى mashsha
‘let [something] go’

ana mashsheet

مشيت

انا

inte mashsheet

مشيت

انت

inti mashsheeti

مشيتي

انتي

huwwe mashsha

مشى

هو

hiyye mashshet

مشت

هي

ni7na mashsheena

مشينا

نحنه

intu mashsheetu

مشيتو

انتو

hinen mashshu

مشو

هنن

 

For these verbs, suffixes that begin with vowels (-et, -u) causes the final vowel -a to disappear entirely (mashsh-u). Suffixes that begin with consonants (-t -t -ti -na -tu) cause the final -a to turn into a long -ee- (mashsh-ee-tu).

As with any verb, adding a suffix causes lengthening of final vowels. However, unlike other verbs – which only have final vowels in suffixes – the ‘he’ form of past tense defective verbs also have final vowels which are part of the root, as in mashshaThese vowels are also lengthened by the addition of suffixes: مشّاه mashshaa ‘he let it go’.

For those speakers who use contracting -et, these verbs appear with it: مشّته mashshto ‘she let it go’.

Form III defective verbs

دارى daara
‘look after, flatter’

ana daareet

داريت

انا

inte daareet

داريت

انت

inti daareeti

داريتي

انتي

huwwe daara

دارى

هو

hiyye daaret

دارت

هي

ni7na daareena

دارينا

نحنه

intu daareetu

داريتو

انتو

hinen daaru

دارو

هنن

 

For these verbs, suffixes that begin with vowels (-et, -u) causes the final vowel -a to disappear entirely (daar-u). Suffixes that begin with consonants (-t -t -ti -na -tu) cause the final -a to turn into a long -ee- (daar-ee-tu).

As with any verb, adding a suffix causes lengthening of final vowels. However, unlike other verbs – which only have final vowels in suffixes – the ‘he’ form of past tense defective verbs also have final vowels which are part of the root, as in daaraThese vowels are also lengthened by the addition of suffixes: داراه daaraa ‘he flattered him’.

For those speakers who use contracting -et, these verbs appear with it: دارته daart-o ‘she flattered him’.

Form V defective verbs

تمنى tmanna
‘hope for’

ana tmanneet

تمنيت

انا

inte tmanneet

تمنيت

انت

inti tmanneeti

تمنيتي

انتي

huwwe tmanna

تمنى

هو

hiyye tmannet

تمنت

هي

ni7na tmanneena

تمنينا

نحنه

intu tmanneetu

تمنيتو

انتو

hinen tmannu

تمنو

هنن

 

For these verbs, suffixes that begin with vowels (-et, -u) causes the final vowel -a to disappear entirely (tmann-u). Suffixes that begin with consonants (-t -t -ti -na -tu) cause the final -a to turn into a long -ee- (tmann-ee-tu).

As with any verb, adding a suffix causes lengthening of final vowels. However, unlike other verbs – which only have final vowels in suffixes – the ‘he’ form of past tense defective verbs also have final vowels which are part of the root, as in tmanna. These vowels are also lengthened by the addition of suffixes: تمنالك tmannaa-lak ‘he hoped for for you’.

For those speakers who use contracting -et, these verbs appear with it: تبنته tbannt-o ‘she adopted him’.

Form VI defective verbs

تقاوى على t2aawa 3ala
‘be strong enough to defeat’

ana t2aaweet

تقاويت

انا

inte t2aaweet

تقاويت

انت

inti t2aaweeti

تقاويتي

انتي

huwwe t2aawa

تقاوى

هو

hiyye t2aawet

تقاوت

هي

ni7na t2aaweena

تقاوينا

نحنه

intu t2aaweetu

تقاويتو

انتو

hinen t2aawu

تقاوو

هنن

 

For these verbs, suffixes that begin with vowels (-et, -u) cause the final vowel -a to disappear entirely (t2aawu). Suffixes that begin with consonants (-t -t -ti -na -tu) cause the final -a to turn into a long -ee- (t2aawee-tu).

As with any verb, adding a suffix causes lengthening of final vowels. However, unlike other verbs – which only have final vowels in suffixes – the ‘he’ form of past tense defective verbs also have final vowels which are part of the root, as in t2aawaThese vowels are also lengthened by the addition of suffixes: تفاداه tfaadaa ‘he avoided it’.

For those speakers who use contracting -et, these verbs appear with it.

 

Form VII defective verbs

انحنى n7ana
‘be bowed’

ana n7aneet

انحنيت

انا

inte n7aneet

انحنيت

انت

inti n7aneeti

انحنيتي

انتي

huwwe n7ana

انحنى

هو

hiyye n7anet

انحنت

هي

ni7na n7aneena

انحنينا

نحنه

intu n7aneetu

انحنيتو

انتو

hinen n7anu

انحنو

هنن

 

For these verbs, suffixes that begin with vowels (-et, -u) cause the final vowel -a to disappear entirely (n7an-u). Suffixes that begin with consonants (-t -t -ti -na -tu) cause the final -a to turn into a long -ee- (n7an-ee-tu).

As with any verb, adding a suffix causes lengthening of final vowels. However, unlike other verbs – which only have final vowels in suffixes – the ‘he’ form of past tense defective verbs also have final vowels which are part of the root, as in n7anaThese vowels are also lengthened by the addition of suffixes: n7anaa-lak ‘he bowed for you’.

Form VIII defective verbs

ستهى من staha min
‘be shy, wary of asking [someone]

ana staheet

استهيت

انا

inte staheet

استهيت

انت

inti staheeti

استهيتي

انتي

huwwe staha

استهى

هو

hiyye stahet

استهت

هي

ni7na staheena

استهينا

نحنه

intu staheetu

استهيتو

انتو

hinen stahu

استهو

هنن

 

For these verbs, suffixes that begin with vowels (-et, -u) cause the final vowel -a to disappear entirely (stahu). Suffixes that begin with consonants (-t -t -ti -na -tu) cause the final -a to turn into a long -ee- (stah-ee-tu).

As with any verb, adding a suffix causes lengthening of final vowels. However, unlike other verbs – which only have final vowels in suffixes – the ‘he’ form of past tense defective verbs also have final vowels which are part of the root, as in stahaThese vowels are also lengthened by the addition of suffixes: استدعاه stad3aa ‘he summoned him’.

For those speakers who use contracting -et, these verbs appear with it: استدعته stad@3to ‘she summoned him’.

Form X defective verbs

استرجى starja
‘dare to’

ana starjeet

استرجيت

انا

inte starjeet

استرجيت

انت

inti starjeeti

استرجيتي

انتي

huwwe staha

استرجى

هو

hiyye stahet

استرجت

هي

ni7na starjeena

استرجينا

نحنه

intu starjeetu

استرجيتو

انتو

hinen starju

استرجو

هنن

 

For these verbs, suffixes that begin with vowels (-et, -u) cause the final vowel -a to disappear entirely (stahu). Suffixes that begin with consonants (-t -t -ti -na -tu) cause the final -a to turn into a long -ee- (stah-ee-tu).

As with any verb, adding a suffix causes lengthening of final vowels. However, unlike other verbs – which only have final vowels in suffixes – the ‘he’ form of past tense defective verbs also have final vowels which are part of the root, as in stahaThese vowels are also lengthened by the addition of suffixes: استدعاه stad3aa ‘he summoned him’.

For those speakers who use contracting -et, these verbs appear with it: استدعته stad@3to ‘she summoned him’.